Sábado, 26 de julio de 2014
Extractos de plantas

Autor: Gatti, Walter Omar

Se ha realizado una evaluación analítica cuantitativa de la extracción de la droga antimalárica
natural artemisinina, presente en plantas silvestres de Artemisia annua L., utilizando mezclas de etanol
70% (v/v) - agua. El objetivo ha sido encontrar una justificación de la reducida recuperación de esa droga
en los procesos de su aislamiento ya indicados en la literatura y que conducen a la obtención de rendimientos
que no corresponden con el dosaje inicial de la droga en el material vegetal fresco. Los resultados de
este trabajo podrían ser de utilidad para interpretar situaciones análogas en el aislamiento de productos
naturales provenientes de vegetales.

Autor: Santos, Marcelo Henrique dos

Os constituintes químicos isolados do fruto (pericarpo) de Rheedia gardneriana ("bacupari"), foram identificados como 7-epiclusianona (I), o ácido oleanólico (II) e uma mistura de sesquiterpenos (III) e testados, in vitro, quanto à sua atividade biológica sobre a eclosão de juvenis do nematóide Meloidogyne incognita raça 3 na concentração de 100 μg.mL-1 Os resultados mostraram que o ácido oleanólico foi o . mais eficiente, com uma taxa de inibição de eclosão de juvenis de 40,46%, caracterizada como um efeito nematostático, uma vez que a eclosão de juvenis ocorreu quando os ovos tratados pela substância foram transferidos para a água.

Autor: Carli, Roseni B.G. de

The aim of this work is to evaluate in vivo the anti-inflammatory effect of creams containing kaurenoic acid (KA), isolated from the acetonic extract of the W. paludosa (stems and roots). The herbal drug was incorporated into anionic cream (Lanette®) at 100 μg/g. Creams containing different permeation enhancers (urea, alpha bisabolol, isodecyl oleate, isopropyl myristate, soy lecithin) were prepared, and the in vivo topical anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by the croton oil-induced ear edema method in mice using dexamethasone cream (5 mg/g) and Acheflan® (essential oil of Cordia verbenacea 5 mg/g) as positive control. The potential cutaneous irritation was evaluated by the agarose overlay assay. KA cream, KA and isopropyl myristate and soy lecithin cream and dexamethasone cream presented inhibition of ear edema of 61.73 ± 23.23%, 71.71 ± 15.77% and 64.45 ± 13.41%, respectively. These results suggest that KA incorporated in the cream showed a greater anti-inflammatory effect than positive control, while KA cream containing a concentration lower than dexamethasone cream presents a statistically similar ear edema reduction compared with the control, with no potential cutaneous irritation being observed.

Autor: García Couto, Angélica

O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar o produto seco por aspersão de Phyllanthus niruri L. Foram avaliados os parâmetros de densiflcação (densidades bruta e de compactação, fator de Hausner, índice de compressibilidade e compactabilidade), distribuição granulométrica, aspectos macro e microscópico, fluxo (ângulo de repouso e fluxo dinâmico), assim como perda por dessecação, pH e teor de flavonóides totais. O produto seco por aspersáo de P. niruri foi classiflcado como pó finíssimo, de baixa densidade, fluxo não homogêneo e sistema de empacotamento estável

Autor: Vivot, Eduardo

Los extractos de cinco plantas de la flora de Entre Ríos (Argentina), usadas como antisépticos
en medicina popular, fueron ensayados frente a bacterias y hongos para la evaluación de sus actividades
antimicrobianas mediante el método de difusión con discos. El extracto diclorometánico de Acanthospermum
australe y de Polygonum punctatum y el extracto hidroalcohólico de Arctium minus fue activo contra
Bacillus subtillis, Micrococcus luteus, Listeria monocytogenes y Staphylococcus aureus. El extracto diclorometánico
de Tessaria integrifolia fue activo contra B. subtilis y S. aureus. El extracto metanólico de P.
punctatum fue activo contra B. subtilis, M. luteus. L. monocytogenes y S. aureus. El extracto hidroalcohólico
de A. australe evidenció actividad contra B. subtilis, M. luteus y S. aureus. El extracto metanólico de P.
punctatum resultó activo contra Aspergillus níger y el extracto diclorometánico de P. punctatum contra
Candida albicans y A. niger. Entre las especies de plantas ensayadas, los extractos de P. punctatum fueron
los que presentaron el mayor espectro de actividad.

Autor: Schwanz, Melissa

Peumus boldus Molina (família Monimiaceae) é conhecido no Brasil como "boldo" ou "boldodo-
chile", sendo suas folhas empregadas como remédio em afecções do sistema digestivo e hepatobiliar.
Foi realizado um estudo botânico macro e microscópico das folhas e do pó, ilustrando e complementando a
monografia da Farmacopéia Brasileira, quarta edição. Características como bordo revoluto, tricomas estrelados,
células secretoras visíveis, coloração e textura, são macroscopicamente úteis; lâmina hipoestomática,
estômatos anomocíticos e cristais, microscopicamente identificam a espécie. Ensaios autobiográficos
verificaram um potente efeito antioxidante e uma inédita atividade anticolinesterásica para a boldina, alcalóide
majoritário desta espécie.

Autor: Provensi, Gustavo

Passiflora alata Curtis is used in Brazilian folk medicine and also by pharmaceutical industry due to its tranquilizing properties. In this work, the central activity of an aqueous (AQ) and an hydroethanolic (HE) leaves extracts were evaluated in elevated plus maze, barbiturate sleeping time, open field and [3H]flunitrazepam binding assays. The only effect presented by AQ (300 mg/kg, p.o.) was on the barbiturate sleeping time, indicating a hypnotic effect. The HE extract (300 and 600 mg/kg, p.o.) also increased the barbiturate sleeping time and reduced the locomotor activity (at 600 mg/kg, p.o.), pointing to a
sedative effect. In addition HE showed an anxiolytic-like effect (300 mg/kg, p.o.) in the elevated plus maze test which was blocked by flumazenil (6 mg/kg, i.p.). Nevertheless HE did not displace [3H]flunitrazepam binding to rat brain synaptosomes in concentrations up to 1000 μg/mL. As a conclusion, we showed that the anxiolytic effect of P. alata in mice depends on the dose and solvent used for the extract preparation,
and this effect cannot be attributed to the direct activation of the central benzodiazepine site by the chemical constituents of the extract. It is possible that their metabolites or an indirect effect on benzodiazepine- GABAA receptor complex mediate the observed anxiolytic effect.

Autor: Lenza, Vanessa A.

Ethanol extract and fractions from aerial parts of Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk (Asteraceae) were screened for the antibacterial and antifungal activities against different species of human pathogenic bacterial ATCC, antibiotic-resistant clinical isolates and strains of the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum (wild and mutant for TruMDR2 gene) using a microdilution method. Demethylwedelolactone/wedelolactone (DWL/WL) and only wedelolactone (WL), both in a high homogeneity degree, were efficient to inhibit the ATCC strains of Staphylococus aureus (Minimal Inhibitory Concentration MIC = 75 μg/mL), Staphylococcus epidemidis (MIC = 125 μg/mL) and Escherichia coli (MIC = 125 μg/mL) as well as antibiotic-resistant clinical isolates of Enterococcus spp (MIC = 250 μg/mL) and S. aureus (MIC = 125 μg/mL). Ethanol extract was more effective than the purified fractions against Trichophyton rubrum strains (MIC = 125 μg/mL), suggesting that anti-fungal activity is not only related to demethylwedelolactone and wedelolactone, but also to a synergistic action between these coumestans and other compounds found in that extract. Thus, this work suggests that E. alba possesses a significant antimicrobial activity, including that against multi-drug resistant microorganisms, which could be of relevance for the treatment of infectious diseases.

Autor: Novello, Cláudio R.

Se investigó la toxicidad, actividad anti-inflamatória, anti-úlcera, anti-hiperglucemiante, hipoglucemiante y anti-hiperlipidémica del extracto hidroalcohólico de tallo (sin corteza) de Picrasma crenata (Vell.) Engler (Simaroubaceae). El extracto presentó baja toxicidad en ratones. Además, de acuerdo al uso popular de esta espécie en el tratamiento de la gastritis y de la diabetes mellitus, se observo um efecto anti-úlcera e hipoglucemiante en ratas. Sin embargo, no fue observado ningún efecto anti-inflamatório, anti-hiperglucémico ni anti-hiperlipidámico en estos animales.

Autor: Gonçalves, Eduardo

O extrato hidroalcoólico (EHA) da Operculina alata (Ham.) Urban, é comercializado pelas propriedades
laxantes e catárticas. Apesar da ampla utilização na Medicina tradicional, existem poucos estudos
sobre a segurança de uso. Foram investigados efeitos da administração crônica do EHA sobre parâmetros
bioquímicos e hematológicos. Não foram observados sinais de toxicidade aguda ou morte, nem alterações
nos perfis bioquímicos e hematológicos, excetuando-se aumento significativo nos níveis séricos de
glicose, alanina amino-transferase e fosfatase alcalina e redução na contagem de monócitos. Embora estatisticamente
significativas, as alterações ocorreram dentro da faixa de referência para espécie. Aparentemente,
essas alterações não estão relacionadas a efeitos tóxicos do extrato.

Autor: Acosta-Esquijarosa, Jhoany

El Vimang® es un producto natural obtenido a partir de la corteza de Mangifera indica L.
(mango) y ha sido utilizado ampliamente teniendo en cuenta sus propiedades antioxidantes, analgésicas y
antinflamatorias. Un novedoso esquema tecnológico para obtener un extracto acuoso de esta planta ha sido
desarrollado en Cuba a nivel industrial. El proceso contempla la extracción de los componentes de la
corteza del árbol utilizando agua como disolvente. El propósito de este trabajo es definir a partir de un estudio
cinético las mínimas etapas de extracción, así como estudiar el poder extractivo de 5 disolventes en la
extracción de mangiferina del material vegetal. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran que en una etapa de
operación se extraen alrededor de 2,5 g/L de mangiferina y que en el segundo paso de extracción la cantidad
de este componente se reduce 5 veces respecto a la primera etapa. El orden relativo de extracción de la
mangiferina frente a los disolventes estudiados fue Metanol>Agua>Cloroformo>n butanol.

Autor: Oliveira de Melo, Juliana

The effects of the crude extract and fractions of Cayaponia podantha (Cp) on experimental inflammation
models were investigated. Paw edema induced by carrageenan (Cg) and peritonitis induced by
Cg, LPS, and LTB4 were evaluated in rats treated orally with different doses of extract. Croton oil (CO)
induced ear edema and the determination of MPO activity were evaluated in mice. Crude Cp extract and
hexane (HF), ethyl-acetate (AF) and hidromethanol (MF) fractions were topically applied immediately after
the application of the CO. Four hours after Cg injection, animals treated with crude extract (250 and
500 mg/kg) displayed significantly decreased paw edema. The Cp extract (250, 500, and 750 mg/kg) decreased
vascular permeability and leukocyte migration in the peritonitis model in the 3rd h after induction
of the inflammatory reaction. Furthermore, the 500 mg/kg dose of Cp extract also reduced LPS- and
LTB4-induced migration. Crude extract and hexane and ethyl-acetate fractions (5.0 mg) significantly inhibited
ear edema and MPO activity. Our results showed that Cp crude extract and fractions exhibited
anti-inflammatory effects when they are administered orally or topically in animals.

Autor: Singh Gill, Naresh

In the present study antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of the methanolic
extract of Cucumis sativus seeds was evaluated. Extraction of the seeds was carried out using solvents of
increasing polarity. The free radical scavenging activity of all the extracts was measured by DPPH and
H2O2 methods. Methanolic extract of the seeds had shown significant antioxidant activity as compared to
chloroform and ethyl acetate extract. Hence, methanolic extract of C. sativus seeds (MECS) at a dose level
of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg was further evaluated for its in vivo anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan
induced rat paw edema and analgesic activity by tail flick and tail immersion methods. Results
were obtained in a dose dependent manner. MECS (300 mg/kg) had shown significant (p < 0.05) anti-inflammatory
and analgesic activity as compared to diclofenac sodium and morphine, respectively. From
the results it may be concluded that MECS have good antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential.

Autor: MORALES,CARLOS ANDRES

Muchas especies de plantas superiores producen metabolitos secundarios, a los cuales se les atribuye funciones ecologicas y de defensa contra microorganismos y fitofagos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer la susceptibilidad de larvas de Ae. aegypti y An. albimanus a dos tipos de extractos de acetogeninas obtenidos de semillas de Annona muricata. Las dos especies de Culicidae estudiadas fueron altamente susceptibles a ambos tipos de extractos bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Las concentraciones letales medias (CL50) para los extractos polar, no polar y mezcla de acetogeninas para Ae. aegypti fueron de 74,7 ppm, 236,2 ppm y 20,3 ppm, respectivamente, mientras que en An. albimanus fueron de 0,8 ppm, 16,2 ppm y 1,4 ppm. Se presentan las dosis diagnosticas y su respectivo rango de variacion. Las diferencias entre la mortalidad producida por los extractos no fueron estadisticamente significativas. Una eleccion para su utilizaciòn, podra ser determinada posteriormente cuando se evalùe la residualidad de ambos compuestos y la relaciòn costo beneficio.

Autor: MORALES,CARLOS ANDRES

Muchas especies de plantas superiores producen metabolitos secundarios, a los cuales se les atribuye funciones ecologicas y de defensa contra microorganismos y fitofagos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer la susceptibilidad de larvas de Ae. aegypti y An. albimanus a dos tipos de extractos de acetogeninas obtenidos de semillas de Annona muricata. Las dos especies de Culicidae estudiadas fueron altamente susceptibles a ambos tipos de extractos bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Las concentraciones letales medias (CL50) para los extractos polar, no polar y mezcla de acetogeninas para Ae. aegypti fueron de 74,7 ppm, 236,2 ppm y 20,3 ppm, respectivamente, mientras que en An. albimanus fueron de 0,8 ppm, 16,2 ppm y 1,4 ppm. Se presentan las dosis diagnosticas y su respectivo rango de variacion. Las diferencias entre la mortalidad producida por los extractos no fueron estadisticamente significativas. Una eleccion para su utilizaciòn, podra ser determinada posteriormente cuando se evalùe la residualidad de ambos compuestos y la relaciòn costo beneficio.

Autor: Michelin, Daniele C.

The high incidence of diarrhea in the population demands a search for new therapeutic options
and easy access, mainly from plant-based sources. Leaves and bark of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam.
(Sterculiaceae) are popularly employed against diarrhea. However, no information was found in the literature
about this supposed property of the drug. In this study we evaluated in vivo antidiarrheal activity of
stem bark extracts from G. ulmifolia in mice, and in vitro antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus,
Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella sp., Shigella flexneri, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by
using the microdilution method. The n-BuOH semipurified fraction (GU#3) significantly reduced intestinal
motility. The extracts did not show antimicrobial activity. G. ulmifolia Lam. had non-specific antidiarrheal,
and antimotility activity in the experimental models studied, and could be used as an alternative
treatment for non-infectious diarrhea.

Autor: Oening Rodrigues, Patrik

A influência de diferentes sistemas de solventes no processo extrativo de Calendula officinalis
L. Asteraceae, foi investigada neste trabalho. As soluções extrativas foram obtidas utilizando os seguintes
sistemas de solventes: 1) água:etanol (70:30 V/V) (SE-EtOH); 2) água:etanol:propilenoglicol (70:30:10
V/V) (SE-PROPGL) e 3) água:etanol:PEG 400 (70:30:10 V/V) (SE-PEG). Procedeu-se a avaliação dos
parâmetros físico-químicos dos extratos, bem como caracterização fitoquímica para flavonóides por CCD.
A determinação quantitativa foi realizada por CLAE de fase reversa (RP-18) em sistema isocrático, com
fase móvel constituída por acetonitrila:água:ácido fosfórico (17:83:0,5 V/V). A partir da curva analítica do
padrão de rutina (r 2 = 0,99976), foi possível calcular o TF(%), de SE-EtOH (0,2937±0,00657 CV% 2,24),
SE-PROPGL (0,2293±0,00715 CV% 3,12) e SE-PEG (0,2829±0,01102 CV% 3,90).

Autor: Cunha, M. M.

The hexanic and ethanolic extracts obtained from Rollinia laurifolia, collected in Minas Gerais State/Brazil, were screened by the brine shrimp lethality and cytotoxic assays on different cell lines, in order to identify potential sources for novel antitumoral compounds. Fifty percent of the ethanolic derived fractions (E) showed significant cytotoxic activity (IC50< 10–1 μg/mL), not related to tannins or saponins, i. e., IC50 E13 on C6 = 1.54 x 10-2μg/mL, IC50 E29 on L929 and C6 = 6.43 x 10-1μg/mL and 3.57 x 10-2μg/mL, respectively. RP-HPLC analysis led to the purification and identification of two known acetogenins, gonionenin and annonin-I, detected for the first time in Rollinia sp, and a new acetogenin, named laurifolin.

Autor: Dutra, Rafael C.

In the present study the antinociceptive property of Pterodon emarginatus Vog. (Leguminosae)
seeds essential oil (EO) and fractions was investigated. The writhing test induced by acetic acid,
paw licking induced by formalin and hot plate tests were performed in Swiss albino mice (n = 8-10/group),
by oral route at doses of 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg. The EO, hexanic (HF) and buthanolic (BF) fractions reduced
(p < 0.01) the abdominal contortions (100 mg/kg = 22.75 ± 4.03, 14.38 ± 3.41 and 24.6 ± 4.48; 300
mg/kg = 14.00 ± 5.81, 12.13 ± 3.19, and 25.88 ± 2.78; 500 mg/kg = 11.13 ± 3.59, 9.00 ± 2.09 and 17.75 ±
4.82), respectively when compared with control group. The EO and methanolic fraction (MF) reduced the
paw licking in both phases (p<0.05): 1st phase (100 mg/kg = 31.63 ± 14.17 and 60.50 ± 11.61; 300 mg/kg =
28.38 ± 5.72 and 47.75 ± 6.13; 500 mg/kg = 28,25 ± 4.19 and 44.63 ± 6.33) and 2nd phase (100 mg/kg =
53.50 ± 11.96 and 24.13 ± 12.38; 300 mg/kg = 43.75 ± 11.91 and 35.13 ± 12.35; 500 mg/kg = 9.00 ± 4.41 and
23.50 ± 10.18), respectively. Only HF showed effect on the reaction time at hot plate were significant
(p<0.05) after 60 min of treatment. These results suggest that Pterodon emarginatus could constitute a
source of active substances with antinociceptive effect.

Autor: Hasan, Raquibul

The present study was designed to investigate antioxidant, antidiarrhoeal and cytotoxic potential of hydromethanolic extract of the fruit rind of Punica granatum Linn. A dose dependent scavenging of DPPH radical and NO was observed with significant total antioxidant capacity with the plant extract in 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, total antioxidant capacity and nitric oxide (NO) scavenging assays. The extract was also studied for antidiarrhoeal property using castor oil and MgSO4 -induced diarrhoeal model, and charcoal induced gastrointestinal motility test in mice. At the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, the extract reduced the frequency and severity of diarrhoea in test animals throughout the study period. At the same doses, the extracts significantly (p < 0.001) delayed the intestinal transit of charcoal meal in test animals as compared to the control. The extract also displayed strong cytotoxic potential with LC50 value of 10 μg/ml in brine shrimp lethality bioassay.